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Balance of Plant
is Balance of
Balance of plant or "BOP," consists of the remaining systems, components, and structures that comprise a complete power plant or energy system - not included in the prime mover and waste heat recovery (ex. gas turbines, steam turbines, heat recovery steam generators (HRSG), waste heat boilers, etc.) systems.
What is Balance of System?
In solar power plants, balance of system or "BOS," refers to the equipment and components of the solar power plant other than the parabolic trough or solar photovoltaic panels, consisting of the remaining components that make-up the entire solar power plant. Therefore, the balance of system would include; inverters, switches, support racks, wiring and the batteries/battery energy storage system and molten salt storage if installed in the case of concentrated solar power plants.
Land is sometimes included as part of the solar power plant's balance of system.
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Why Concentrated Solar Power is one of the Few "Superior" Renewable Energy Technologies
Concentrated solar power plants use the high annual solar irradiance of the geographic location to generate "carbon free energy" and "pollution free power."
For generating power after the sun sets, many owners/developers of concentrated solar power plants are now installing "Molten Salt Storage" systems that reserves enough energy to allow for electricity generation throughout the nighttime period.
Steam turbines and gas turbines powered by coal, uranium, oil and natural gas are the fuels used today for generating power and electric grid stability. These fuels provide both base-load and peak power. However, these same steam turbines can also be powered by the high temperature heat from concentrated solar power plants.
Concentrated solar power plants in the 30 MW - 200 MW range are now operating successfully in locations from California to Europe. Nearly every day now, new concentrated solar power plants are being planned for construction. The concentrating solar collectors are very efficient and they also completely replace the fossil fuels that were used in traditional power plants. Today's concentrated solar power plants generate the heat needed to generate electricity at a cost equivalent to $50 - $60 per barrel of oil (equivalent). This cost is expected be slashed by 50% to below $25 - $30 per barrel in the next 10 years.
Just like conventional fossil-fueled power plants, concentrated solar power plants generate base-load and peaking power electricity.
Just like fossil fuel fired conventional power plants, concentrated solar power plants have an availability that is close to 100%, but without the carbon emissions, carbon dioxide emissions, hazardous air pollutants, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gas emissions that fossil fuel power plants emit.
solar power plant with a
molten salt storage facility for
full load operation during the nighttime period is currently being built in
Nevada. This concentrated
solar power plant will generate 50 MW of
Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Since the year 1750
World CO2 since 1750 (cubic feet)
World Carbon Dioxide Emissions since 1750 (cubic feet)
The carbon clock tracks total carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons since 1750.
Since 1750, humans have emitted over 5 trillion pounds of carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Roughly half of this has ended up in the oceans where it is beginning to damage the coral reefs. The other half is still in the atmosphere and causing global warming. Each pound of CO2 takes up as much space as a 500 pound person.
The formula (which should be good for a year or two) is:
C(t) = 2.58 ×1012 + 1240×t, where t is seconds since the start of 2007.
C is tonnes (metric tons) of carbon dioxide emissions.
2205 x C gives pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.
That comes to over 43 billion tons/year or over 86 trillion pounds/year.
Carbon dioxide (2) = 1 carbon atom with 2 oxygen atoms.
Carbon has relative weight 12 and Oxygen 16.
So it takes only 12 pounds of carbon to make 12+16+16 = 44 pounds of CO2.
Solar Power - The Technology That Will
Save Humanity." ~ Dr. Joseph Romm
Zero Energy Market to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by
Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Coming;
What About The Buildings Already Standing?
“spending hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for oil, much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest thing that modern society could possibly do. It’s very difficult to think of anything more idiotic than that.” ~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director of the CIA
Price of Addiction|
to Foreign Oil
According to R. James Woolsey, former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, “The basic insight is to realize that global warming, the geopolitics of oil, and warfare in the Persian Gulf are not separate problems — they are aspects of a single problem, the West’s dependence on oil.”
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